In Hong Kong, energy consumption in buildings accounts for more than 60% of the total energy consumption in the past decade. The energy consumption of buildings is mainly due to the operation of equipment/systems of various building services installations. Efficient use of energy can reduce building energy consumption and thus reduce the operation costs of building and equipment. The cooperation of building manager, end-users and operation & maintenance (O & M) personnel is important for reducing the building energy consumption. In addition, an Energy Management Program can be established for the building to improve the efficiency of building energy usage. An Energy Management Program is a process of continuous improvement and comprises a set of well-planned actions. The Program usually comprises of a number of steps. The following block diagram illustrates the elements and process of an Energy Management Program. Each of the steps are briefly described in the following paragraphs.

Flow chart of an Energy Management System. The text below describes the image.

High level commitment
Commitment from senior management is crucial. The implementation of the Energy Management Program can be achieved with the support from the senior management. An energy team should be established to execute energy management activities, and at the same time, a senior staff member should be appointed as the team leader responsible for the overall coordination of the program. 

Prepare an energy policy
A energy policy is a statement that describes the ultimate goal of performing energy management in a particular building.

Energy management plan
After setting up the energy policy and an energy team, a management plan should then be established. The management plan will be a guide on how the team to improve energy efficiency, it should include the specific reduction targets of energy and cost, as well as the organization of management resources.

Energy audit
Continue monitoring of the ongoing and historic energy use of the building by means of energy audit is an important step for identifying opportunities to improve energy performance. The aspects of energy audit include:

  1. Data collection 
    Collecting the information about how, when and where energy is being used is important for evaluating the building energy performance. The information can be obtained by collecting energy bills and meter readings. It is preferable to collect at least three years of monthly data in order to make the results more comprehensive.
  2. Site survey and measurement
    By carrying out site survey and measurement, the current situation of building energy usage can be obtained. The means for improvement can then be identified after analyzing the data measurement data collected.
  3. Benchmark
    Indicators and benchmarks are valuable tools for managing energy usage with respect to corresponding building type. The energy performance of similar facilities can be compared by benchmarking. It is an important activity in energy management because it can be used to identify the deficiency of current energy management practices.
    The EMSD has developed a set of energy consumption indicators and benchmarks for selected groups in Hong Kong. For details of the study please click This web page has hyperlinks which may transfer you to third-party

By conducting energy audit in buildings, Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs) can be identified. Energy audit provides a baseline from which energy consumption can be compared over time. Please click here for further details of energy audit.

Formulation of Plan of Actions
A detailed action plan based on the results of the energy audit should be formulated to ensure a systematic process to implement energy management opportunities. The plan should include an implementation timetable and funding and budgetary requirements.

Implement the action plan
The action plan should then be implemented. The progress of the implementation will need to be closely monitored to ensure they achieve the desired energy targets within the specified timeframe. Top down approach should be adopted so that action requiring staff participation can be carried out as smoothly as possible.

Evaluate energy saving achievement
Regularly review the energy use data and the activities carried out is an important step in energy management. The building energy management team can improve the management plan by updating the action plans, identifying best practices and setting new performance goals.

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